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Accounting Dictionary – 80 – X to 9

X-INEFFICIENCY is the failure to minimize costs or maximize returns. (Sometimes referred to as X-efficiency, but carrying the same meaning.)

YANKEE BOND is a dollar bond issued by a non-U.S. borrower in the United States.

YEN is the currency of Japan. Its subdivisions are 100 sen and 1000 rin.

YIELD is the annual return on an investment, expressed as a percentage. The yield to redemption or maturity (the same thing) combines the running yield with the "pull to redemption"; thus a bond which has a 10% coupon and exactly one year of remaining life will sell at $98.2% when interest rates are at 12.0%, that 12.0% being composed of 10.2% running yield and 1.8% pull to redemption ($100.0 - 98.2%).

ZERO BASED BUDGET is where the expenses or costs of the prior year are not taken into consideration when establishing expense or budgetary levels looking forward. Each expense category starts from zero. All expenses or cost levels within the budget must be justified or re-justified as being necessary; thus “zero-base” : Phương pháp lập ngân sách trên cơ sở số 0 - không tính đến các hoạt động của năm trước khi lập ngân sách, các mức chi phí bắt đầu bằng 0 và phải được chứng minh khi cần thiết (Pp lập kế hoạch truyền thống tập trung vào sự thay đổi có xu hướng tăng lên so với năm trước, giả thiết rằng những hoạt động,chương trình của năm trước là cần thiết và phải được tiếp tục).

ZERO COUPON BONDS are bonds priced at a large discount from face value. The bonds mature at full face value so the difference between the original issue price and the face value represents interest income. The issuer of the zero coupon bond saves on cash flow since the interest isn't paid out until the end of the bond holding period.

ZERO COUPON CONVERTIBLE DEBENTURE/SECURITY is a zero coupon bond that is convertible into the common stock of the issuing company after the common stock reaches a certain price.



4-4-5 CALENDAR, in budgeting and accounting, is the breakdown of each month into weeks by counting the number of times Friday occurs within each month, e.g., Jan = 4 weeks, Feb = 4 weeks, Mar = 5 weeks, Apr = 4 weeks, May = 4 weeks, Jun = 5 weeks… etc. to total 52 weeks in a 12 month period. Every third month, Friday will occur 5 times. All other months, Friday will occur 4 times. In the months where Friday occurs 5 times, it is considered a 5 week month. Whereas, the 4 Friday months will be considered as 4 week months.

10-K is the audited annual report that most reporting companies file with the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC). It provides a comprehensive overview of the registrant's business. The report must be filed within 90 days after the end of the company's fiscal year.

10-Q is a report filed quarterly to the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) by most reporting companies. It includes unaudited financial statements and provides a continuing view of the company's financial position during the year. The report must be filed for each of the first three fiscal quarters of the company's fiscal year and is due within 45 days of the close of the quarter.

13TH PERIOD in the fiscal year is the period used for fiscal year-end adjusting entries (periods 1-12 being the months in the fiscal year).

80 - 20 RULE (Pareto Principle/Law) is a general rule of thumb in business that says that 20% of the items produce 80% of the activity, while 20% of the product line produces 80% of the sales, 20 % of the customers generate 80% of the complaints, and so on. In evaluating any business situation, look for the small group which produces the major portion of the transactions you are concerned with. This rule is not exactly accurate, but it reflects a general truth, nothing is evenly distributed.

401 (K) PLAN is a retirement plan in the United States that allows qualified employees to contribute money from their paychecks into a tax-sheltered account.

940 Form is the U.S. IRS Employer's Annual Payroll Tax form.

941 Form is the U.S. IRS Employer's Federal Quarterly Payroll Tax form.
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